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He reported in the May 1938 Scientific American that "the smoking of tobacco was associated definitely with an impairment of life duration and the amount or degree of this impairment increased as the habitual amount of smoking increased." In 1926, he first reported health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption (as opposed to both abstinence and heavy drinking) in a modern medical light.
German-born American physician and pharmacologist who shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (with Sir Henry Dale) “for their discoveries relating to the chemical transmission of nerve impulses.” Sadly, just two years later he was a victim of Nazi persecution, imprisoned for being Jewish.
French chemist who collaborated with Nicolas Clément (later to become his son-in-law) in scientific investigations including the exact determination of the composition of carbon monoxide and carbon disulphide.
They also experimentally determined the ratio of the specific heats of gases (1819).
Incorporating his idea of the parabolic chamber, howitzers and mortars were operated more efficiently.« Scottish geologist who initiated the principle of uniformitarianism with his Theory of the Earth (1785).
Black-American physician and surgeon who was an authority on the preservation of human blood for transfusion.
He joined the Royal Artillery shortly after his 18th birthday, and spent his life in service during which time he devised and refined his shell, invented a percussion lock for small arms (patented 1834) and other improvements in fuses, ammunition and small arms.
He also prepared important artillery range tables and originated the brass tangent slide to improve the sighting of guns.
He organized and directed the blood-plasma programs of the United States and Great Britain in the early years of World War II, while also agitating the authorities to stop excluding the blood of blacks from plasma-supply networks. Hungarian-American physicist and physiologist who received the 1961 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea by which sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea, a portion of the inner ear.
Békésy developed anatomical techniques that allowed rapid, nondestructive dissection of the cochlea.
Békésy was able to observe the traveling waves along the basilar membrane that were produced by sound.